• A P8I aircraft of the Indian Navy arrived at Guam, USA on 14 Mar 23 to participate in ‘Exercise Sea Dragon 23’.
  • This exercise is an annual, multi-national high-end anti-submarine warfare (ASW) training exercise of the navies of participant countries.
  • It is hosted by the USA.


  1. USA
  2. India
  3. Japan
  4. Canada
  5. Republic of Korea


The Exercise aims to achieve high levels of synergy and coordination between the friendly navies, which is based on their shared values and commitment to an open, inclusive Indo-Pacific.

Zoji La Pass and Razdan Pass

Border Roads Organisation opens strategic Zoji La Pass and Razdan Pass.

Zoji La Pass:

  • Zoji La is a high mountain pass at an elevation of located on the boundary of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh in the Kargil district.
  • NH1 (National Highway 1) between Srinagar and Leh traverses the pass.
  • An all-weather Zoji-la Tunnel is under construction which will provide all weather connectivity to Ladakh.

Razdan pass:

  • Razdan Pass is located in the Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir in the Bandipora district.
  • It connects the Gurez Valley in the north to the Kashmir Valley in the south.
  • and is located in the Bandipora district.
  • The pass is the only route connecting Gurez with the rest of the world.
  • The Harmukh mountain, the highest peak in the surrounding area.
The Border Roads Organisation

·        The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) is a road construction executive force that is a part of the Indian Armed Forces.

·        BRO develops and maintains road networks in India’s border areas and friendly neighboring countries.

·        The organisation’s operations are spread across India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan and Sri  Lanka.

·        This includes infrastructure operations in 19 states and three union territories (including Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

·        The BRO was formed in 1960 to secure India’s borders and develop infrastructure in remote areas of the north and north-east states.

The BRO consists of:

·        Border Roads Wing under the Ministry of Defense and

·        The General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF).

·        Officers are selected through the Indian Engineering Services (IES) Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).

·        Few officers are also deputed from Indian Army Corps of Engineers.

·        They are subjected to all provisions of the Army Act, 1950 and Army Rules, 1954 except a few exceptions.

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