India and Ukraine

India and Ukraine 

India and Ukraine have a warm and friendly relationship. India was one of the  first countries to recognize Ukraine as a sovereign country in December 1991.  The two countries established diplomatic relations in January 1992. India opened  its embassy in Kyiv in May 1992, and Ukraine opened its mission in New Delhi  in February 1993. 

Ukraine’s top exports to India are:  

  • Vegetable oils and fats- (88.1% of the total volume of exports) Food industry residues and waste- (3%) 
  • Flying machines (Drones)- (1.8%) 
  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, and machinery- (1.6%) 

According to Ukraine’s Ministry of Education and Science, there are over 18,000  Indian students in Ukraine. Popular universities for Indian students include Taras  Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Bogomolets National Medical  University, and Kyiv Medical University of UAFM. 

Commerce and Trade Relations 

  • Bilateral trade between the two countries has grown significantly in the last  25 years, and in 2018-19, was almost US$ 2.8 Billion.  
  • India is Ukraine’s largest export destination in the Asia-Pacific and the  fifth largest overall export destination.  
  • Main items of export from Ukraine to India are agricultural products,  metallurgical products, plastics and polymers, etc.  
  • while pharmaceuticals, machinery, chemicals, food products, etc. are the major Indian exports to Ukraine. 

How black sea is important to Ukraine 

  • The Black Sea is a significant trade route for Ukraine, with over 50% of  the country’s exports going through Odesa, its largest Black Sea port.  Ukraine is one of the world’s most important grain-producing regions, and  grain was the country’s main export until a grain agreement with Russia  ended in mid-July.  
  • The Black Sea Grain Initiative, or grain deal, was an agreement  between Ru
    ssia, Ukraine, Turkey, and the  United Nations (UN).
  • The agreement allowed for the safe transportation of grain  and foodstuffs from Ukrainian ports.
  • Under the agreement, Ukraine exported about 30.3 million tonnes of grain  to countries suffering from insecurity.
  • After withdrawing from the grain deal, Russia destroyed Ukrainian  Black Sea ports to stop grain shipments.
  • Russia also struck sites on the Danube River, which is a few hundred  yards from Romania, a NATO member.
  • The Black Sea is also involved in an estimated 15% to 20% of oil exports  from Russia.


Aadhar refers to an a twelve-digit random identification number issued for  residents of India. It is issued after recording and verifying details including  demographics and biometrics. It is issued by the Unique Identification Authority  of India (UIDAI). 


  • Voluntary 
  • Resident of India for a minimum period of 182 days

Aadhar act, 2016 

  • covers the geographical boundaries of the country. 
  • provides for the composition and functions of an authority under the Act. Ensures the task of maintaining the information and its security to authority 

The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) 

  • a statutory body established under the Aadhaar Act, 2016 
  • operated under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology  (MeitY) 
  • consists of a Chairperson, a chief executive officer, and two part-time  members nominated by the Central Government 


  • Portable proof of identity which makes verification convenient and  seamless 
  • Provides efficient, transparent, and targeted delivery of subsidies, benefits,  and services to citizens 
  • prevent identity fraud  
  • improve the efficiency of service delivery 

Protection of Information 

  • Provided under Section 28 of the Act 
  • UIDAI shall ensure security of an individual’s identity information Authority shall also take necessary measures to protect data against access  and accidental or intentional destruction, loss or damage. 
  • Information may be revealed in two cases: 1. In the interest of national  safety 2. The court orders. 


  • Introduced via a money bill 
  • May affect right to privacy through sharing of information Holds potential to profile individuals  
  • UID holds discretionary powers 
  • Bill doesn’t specify time period for maintenance of records

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Promote wheat seeds that are  heat-tolerant the Centre was targeting an increase in the  coverage of area under heat-tolerant  wheat varieties to 60% this season. 

800 climate-resistant varieties were  available in the country

NHRC seeks action taken  report on welfare of  transpersons from govt. The welfare measures include provision  of separate toilets, free sex reassignment  surgery, pension rights and inheritance  rights. 

Concern: despite legal reforms, they  continue to grapple with discrimination,  leading to employment disparities, limited  access to healthcare, and exclusion from  social circles.  

The Transgender Persons (Protection of  Rights) Act, 2019, aims to safeguard and  uphold their rights.


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