Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services Relating to Health, Education, Human Resources



NITI Aayog releases Report on Faecal Sludge and Septage Management in Urban Areas: Service and Business Models.


  • The NITI Aayog released a book on faecal sludge and septage management in urban areas.
    • The book was jointly developed by the NITI Aayog and the National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (NFSSM) Alliance.
  • The book presents 27 case studies across 10 states and various service and business models adopted by Indian cities while implementing faecal sludge and septage management (FSSM) initiatives.
  • It provides a repository of FSSM best practices that can be adapted and replicated appropriately across the country.
  • Considering the importance of FSSM solutions, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs came up with the national policy on FSSM in 2017.
  • The policy has been rigorously pursued across the country—more than 24 states have adopted it and 12 of them have come up with their own policies.


  • The report mentions that about 60% of urban households rely on onsite sanitation systems, which require dedicated planning for the management of waste collected in these systems’ containment structures.
  • Accordingly, FSSM planning prioritizes human excreta management, a waste stream with a high potential for spreading diseases.
  • The planning strategies entail emptying, transportation, treatment, and safe disposal of waste and possible reuse of output products post-treatment.
  • It is a low-cost and easily scalable sanitation solution.
  • Many Indian cities have come up with exemplary FSSM planning models, with optimal private-sector participation and greater mechanization of operations.


  • Safe sanitation is a strong contributor to both public health and environmental sustainability and needs focused attention, especially the safe and complete treatment of all human waste.
  • The models captured in this report will help other states and cities replicate and scale them up to achieve 100% effective management of India’s faecal sludge and septage in the next five years.
  • This report is intended for city managers, municipal functionaries, elected representatives, state decision-makers, CSOs and private-sector players to understand the developments in FSSM and the opportunities it presents.




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