• The World Health Organization (WHO) launched a Global Diabetes Compact to better fight the disease while marking the centenary of the discovery of insulin.
  • The programme was launched at the Global Diabetes Summit co-hosted by the Government of Canada.

Important points:

  • The Global Diabetes Compact has the vision of reducing the risk of diabetes, and ensuring that all people who are diagnosed with diabetes have access to equitable, comprehensive, affordable and quality treatment and care.
  • It will also support the prevention of type 2 diabetes from obesity, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity.
  • It will set standards for tackling the diseases in the form of ‘global coverage targets’ for ensuring a wider reach of diabetes care.
  • A key aim of the program is to unite key stakeholders from the public and private sectors, and, critically, people who live with diabetes, around a common agenda, to generate new momentum and co-create solutions.


Diabetes is a Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar, or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.

It is classified into two types:

Type 1 Diabetes: It occurs when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin.

Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. In this condition the body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance.The main reason for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes is due to obesity and lack of exercise.


  • Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted by Pancreas which helps in maintaining normal blood glucose levels by facilitating cellular glucose uptake, regulating carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and promoting cell division and growth through its mitogenic effects.
  • It was discovered in 1921 by orthopedic surgeon Dr. Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best, from the University of Toronto.
  • Dr. Banting later won the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1923 along with Professor McLeod who was a Professor of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

Global Burden of Diabetes:

  • Today, approximately 6% of the world’s population – more than 420 million people – live with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
  • It is the only major non-communicable disease for which the risk of dying early is going up, rather than down.
  • It has emerged as one of the major comorbid conditions linked to severe Covid-19 infections.
  • The International Diabetes Foundation Diabetes Atlas, in 2019, placed India among the top 10 countries for people with diabetes.
  • Steps Taken by Government of India:
  • India’s National Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Target is to prevent the rise in obesity and diabetes prevalence.
  • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancers, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) in 2010, to provide support for diagnosis and cost-effective treatment at various levels of health care.


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