Security challenges and their management in border areas
India and China have agreed to step up efforts for the disengagement of troops and de-escalation of tensions along the Line of Actual Control (LAC)
Respect the LAC
In a conversation with President of China, PM highlighted India’s concerns on the unresolved issues along the LAC in the western sector of the India-China border areas. PM had “underlined that the maintenance of peace and tranquillity in the border areas and observing and respecting the LAC are essential for normalisation of the India-China relationship”.
The Line of Actual Control (LAC)
It is the de facto border between India and China in the Himalayas. It is a 4,057-kilometer (2,520-mile) long line that runs through three areas of northern Indian states:
- the western sector (Ladakh, Kashmir),
- the middle sector (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh),
- the eastern sector (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh).
The LAC was established in the aftermath of the 1962 Sino-Indian War, but the exact location of the LAC is disputed by both countries.
- China considers the LAC to be around 2,000 kilometers long, while India considers it to be 3,488 kilometers long.
- There are a number of areas along the LAC where the two countries have different perceptions of where the line lies.
- These areas are known as “areas of differing perceptions”.
- The LAC is a sensitive area and there have been a number of military standoffs between India and China in recent years.
- The most recent standoff occurred in 2020 in the Galwan Valley in the western sector of the LAC.
- The standoff lasted for several months and resulted in the deaths of 20 Indian soldiers and an unknown number of Chinese soldiers.
The two countries have been holding talks to resolve the border dispute, but no breakthrough has been achieved so far. The LAC remains a potential flashpoint between India and China