The United States is getting ready to lift COVID-19 restrictions that have blocked migrants caught at the U.S.-Mexico border from seeking asylum since 2020, a major policy shift with humanitarian and political implications.

What is Title 42?

  • The COVID restrictions, known as Title 42, were first implemented in March 2020 at the beginning of the pandemic.
  • Title 42 allowed border agents to rapidly expel many migrants to Mexico.
  • Since its inception, migrants have been expelled more than 2.7 million times under Title 42, although the total includes many repeat crossers and Mexico has generally only accepted certain nationalities.

START programme

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has announced space science and technology awareness training (START).
  • ISRO has launched a new introductory-level online training programme called ‘Space Science and Technology Awareness Training (START)’.
  • It is aimed at post-graduate and final-year undergraduate students of physical sciences and technology.

The programme will cover various domains of space science, including:

  1. Astronomy & Astrophysics,
  2. Heliophysics & Sun-Earth interaction,
  3. Instrumentation, and Aeronomy.

It will be delivered by the scientists from Indian academia and ISRO centres.


  • The START programme is part of ISRO’s efforts to enable Indian students to become professionals in space science and technology.
  • The training will also emphasize the cross-disciplinary nature of space science, giving students insights into how their individual aptitudes can be applied to the field.
  • The programme is intended to give them an overview of the different facets of the field, research opportunities and career options.

Remote sensing courses

The ISRO’s National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) has also announced two short courses:

  1. remote sensing data acquisition and
  2. remote sensing data processing.


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