6G

  • Recently, the government has asked the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) to begin developing 6G and other futuristic technologies to catch up with the global market in time.
  • The next generation telecom technology (6G) is said to be 50 times faster than 5G and is expected to be commercially launched between 2028-2030.

Important points:

  • 6G (sixth-generation wireless) is the successor to 5G cellular technology.
  • It will be able to use higher frequencies than 5G networks and provide substantially higher capacity and much lower latency (delay).
  • One of the goals of 6G internet will be to support one microsecond-latency communication (delay of one-microsecond in communication).
  • This is 1,000 times faster – or 1/1000th the latency – than one millisecond throughput.
  • It seeks to utilize the terahertz band of frequency which is currently unutilized.
  • Terahertz waves fall between infrared waves and microwaves on the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • These waves are extremely tiny and fragile, but there’s a huge amount of free spectrum up there that would allow for spectacular data rates.

Significance:

  • The 6G technology market is expected to facilitate large improvements in imaging, presence technology and location awareness.
  • 6G’s higher frequencies will enable much faster sampling rates, in addition to providing significantly better throughput and higher data rates.
  • The combination of sub-mm waves (e.g., wavelengths smaller than one millimeter) and frequency selectivity to determine relative electromagnetic absorption rates could potentially lead to significant advances in wireless sensing technology.
  • It will see the emergence of simple, easy-to-wear-and-carry devices with a huge set of digital capabilities.
  • This will help the paramedics, educators and agro-technicians to jumpstart the village ecosystems with little or limited need for on-site presence of doctors, professors and agro-experts.
  • For India, such an enabling set of technologies will bring manifold utilisation of scarce rail, air and road networks and make mass transportation far more efficient; Artificial Intelligence (AI) and massively parallel computing architectures will help solve transportation and scheduling operations research problems.

Challenges:

  • The key technical challenges are energy efficiency, avoiding signal attenuation due to obstructions and water droplets in the air, and, of course, maintaining end-to-end trust through robust cyber security and data protection mechanisms.
  • Need innovations in antenna design, miniaturisation, edge cloud and distributed AI models. In addition, we need to ensure end-to-end security and privacy by design, instead of as an afterthought.
  • We don’t have semiconducting materials that can use multi-THz frequencies. Getting any kind of range out of those frequencies may require enormous arrays of extremely tiny antennas.

SOURCE: THE HINDU,THE ECONOMIC TIMES,MINT

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