- The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) has provided tap water supply to more than 97 lakh households in five JE-AES (Japanese Encephalitis-Acute Encephalitis Syndrome) affected states.
- The five states with priority districts are Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
- JJM envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024. The Jal Shakti Ministry is the nodal ministry for the implementation of the scheme.
- AES is a severe case of encephalitis transmitted by mosquitoes and is characterized by high fever and inflammation of the brain.
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2006, coined the term AES to signify a group of diseases which seem similar to one another but are difficult to differentiate in the chaotic environment of an outbreak.
- The disease most commonly affects children and young adults and can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality.
- Causative Agents: Viruses are the main causative agents in AES cases, although other sources such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, spirochetes, chemicals, toxins, and noninfectious agents have also been reported over the past few decades. It is not vaccine-preventable.
- Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of AES in India (ranging from 5%-35%).
- Herpes simplex virus, Nipah virus, Zika virus, Influenza A virus, West Nile virus, Chandipura virus, mumps, measles, dengue, scrub typhus, S.pneumoniae are also found as causative agents for AES.
- Confusion, disorientation, coma, or inability to talk, high fever, vomiting, nausea, and unconsciousness.
- The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) in India has set up countrywide surveillance for AES through sentinel sites with a focus on detecting Japanese Encephalitis (JEV).
- In the sentinel surveillance network, AES/JE is diagnosed by IgM Antibody Capture ELISA, and virus isolation is done in the National Reference Laboratory.
SOURCE: THE HINDU,THE ECONOMIC TIMES,MINT