Syllabus: Global Relations that affect Indian Interest

  • ESA – utilizing two of the ground stations in the ESTRACK network to track the satellite in its orbit, receive telemetry from the spacecraft and forward it to the Mission Operations Centre in Bengaluru, and forward commands sent from Bengaluru to the flying satellite.
  • The ESA’s 15-metre antenna in Kourou, French Guiana, and the 32-meter antenna belonging to Goonhilly Earth Station, U.K., were selected for the support.
  • NASA – its Deep Space Network is providing telemetry and tracking coverage during the powered descent phase.
  • Some changes since Chandrayaan 2: strengthening of the landers’ legs, reduction in the number of engines, increasing the quantity of propellant, and inclusion of new sensors – all the systems are more robust and have changed the guidance design and introduced newer algorithms.
  • Even if all sensors fail while attempting to make the soft landing, the lander would still be able to land provided that the propulsion system works.


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