Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

GS-3

SAMBHAR LAKE

  • The State Government of Rajasthan will identify new tourist points at Sambhar Salt Lake.
  • The Lake forms part of the desert circuit in the Centre’s Swadesh Darshan Scheme.
  • The Scheme was launched by the Ministry of Tourism in 2014 -15 for integrated development of theme based tourist circuits in the country.

Important points:

  • Situated about 80 km southwest of Jaipur, in east-central Rajasthan.
  • It is the largest inland salt lake in India. It represents the depression of the Aravalli Range.
  • The lake’s salt supply was worked by the Mughal dynasty (1526–1857) and it was later owned jointly by the Jaipur and Jodhpur princely states.
  • It is a wetland of ‘international importance’ under the Ramsar Convention, declared in 1990.
  • The area occupied by this lake differs from season to season, so roughly it is between 190 and 230 sq km.
  • Also, being an extensive saline wetland, the depth of the lake also fluctuates from season to season. During peak summers (dry time), the depth measures as low as 60 cm but during the monsoons, it goes up to 3 m.
  • It receives water from six rivers, namely Samaod, Khari, Mantha, Khandela, Medtha, and Roopangarh.
  • The vegetation present in the catchment area is mostly xerophytic type.
  • Xerophyte is a plant adapted for growth under dry conditions.
  • Flamingoes, pelicans and the waterfowls are commonly sighted at the Sambhar Lake.
  • In 2019, almost 22,000 migratory birds died at the Lake due to avian botulism, a neuromuscular illness.
  • Before 2020’s winter season, the Rajasthan government decided to build temporary shelters for migratory birds near the Lake.
  • It is known for the production of brine/salt and also houses one of the largest salt manufacturing units in the country.
  • Shakambari Devi temple, Sambhar Wildlife Sanctuary.

SOURCE:MINT.THE HINDU

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