Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management

GS-3

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE

Important points:

  • Climate change is perceptible through a rise in all India mean temperature and increased frequency of extreme rainfall events in the last three decades.
  • This causes fluctuation in production of major crops in different years.
  • Impact of climate change on Indian agriculture was studied under National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA).
  • Rainfed rice yields in India are projected to reduce marginally (<2.5%) in 2050 and 2080 and irrigated rice yields by 7% in 2050 and 10% in 2080 scenarios.
  • Further, wheat yield projected to reduce by 6-25% in 2100 and   maize yields by 18-23%.
  • Future climates are likely to benefit chickpea with increase in productivity (23-54%).
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has initiated a network project NICRA during 2011 to address the impact of climate change on Indian agriculture.
  • NICRA project is being reviewed by a High Level Monitoring Committee (HLMC) under the Chairmanship of Secretary, DARE & DG, ICAR with invited members representing different Ministries, Government of India.
  • This committee recommends measures to be taken through NICRA for making Indian agriculture more resilient to changing climate.
  • Besides an expert committee periodically review the project and advise on various aspects.
  • Vulnerability assessment of Indian Agriculture to climate change is undertaken by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
  • . Such an assessment was for 573 rural districts of India (excluding the Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep).
  • Based on the vulnerability analysis, 109 districts out of 573 rural districts (19% of total districts) are ‘very high-risk’ districts, while 201 districts are risk districts.
  • The details are available atIntegrated simulation modelling studies indicated that under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5, maximum temperature is expected to increase by 1 to 1.3oC in 256 districts, by 1.3 to 1.6 oC in 157 districts (2020-2049).
  • The increase ranged from <1.3 oC in 199 districts to >1.6 oC in 89 districts. Cultivation of wheat in these districts is likely to be affected by heat stress.
  • Under NICRA project, wheat germplasm comprising of advanced breeding lines and land races have been screened for heat/drought tolerance.
  • ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has released the high yielding varieties such as HD 2967 and HD 3086 which are being grown in large areas of North-west and North India.
  • Zero till planting of wheat has advanced the wheat sowing in Punjab and Haryana.

SOURCE:PIB

 

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