• Recently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) released a report named Hunger Hotspots – August to November 2021.
  • The 2021 Global Food Crises Report released in May 2021 had already warned of acute food insecurity, soaring to a five-year high, pushing at least 155 million people into acute food insecurity in 2020.

Important points:

  • Ethiopia, Madagascar, South Sudan, northern Nigeria and Yemen are among 23 countries where acute food insecurity will worsen from August through November, 2021.
  • Ethiopia and Madagascar are the world’s newest “highest alert” hunger hotspots.
  • Ethiopia faces a devastating food emergency linked to ongoing conflict in the Tigray region.
  • Meanwhile, in southern Madagascar the worst drought in 40 years is expected to push 28,000 people into famine-like conditions by the end of 2021.

Factors causing food insecurity:

  • Population displacement, abandonment of agricultural land, loss of life and assets, disruption of trade and cropping and loss of access to markets caused by conflicts can worsen food insecurity.
  • Violence is predicted to intensify in Afghanistan, Central Sahel, the Central African Republic etc.
  • Violence is also likely to disrupt access to humanitarian assistance.
  • In 2020, almost all low- and middle-income countries were affected by the Pandemic Natural
  • Extreme weather conditions and climate variability are likely to affect several parts of the world during the outlook period.
  • In Haiti, for instance, reduced precipitation during the main growing season ended May is likely to have impacted yield. Continued below-average rainfall, on the hand, is likely to reduce yield during the main rice-growing season.
  • Desert Locust infestation was a major worry in the Horn of Africa at the beginning of July 2021, while other regions were unaffected.
  • Humanitarian access is limited in various ways, including administrative/bureaucratic impediments, movement restrictions, security constraints and physical constraints related to the environment.
  • Countries currently facing the most significant obstacles, preventing aid from reaching those who need it most are Afghanistan, Ethiopia, the Central African Republic etc.


  • Short-term protective interventions be implemented before new humanitarian needs materialise and immediate actions are to be taken for addressing existing humanitarian requirements.
  • Integrate humanitarian, development and peacebuilding policies in conflict areas – for example, through social protection measures to prevent families from selling meagre assets in exchange for food.
  • Scale-up climate resilience across food systems by offering smallholder farmers wide access to climate risk insurance and forecast-based financing.
  • Strengthen the resilience of the most vulnerable to economic adversity through in-kind or cash support programmes to lessen the impact of pandemic-style shocks or food price volatility.


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