• Recently, a former militant of the Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC), was killed in a police encounter that has led to a crisis in Meghalaya.
  • The encounter was reportedly carried out by the police team of East Khasi Hills and East Jaintia Hills.

Important points:

  • Meghalaya shares a border with Bangladesh and has seen decades of migration from the neighbouring country as well as from other parts of India – Bengal, Punjab and Bihar.
  • This has sparked anxieties of indigenous communities who feared becoming a “minority in their own homeland” because of the influx of “outsiders”.
  • It was a culmination of these “anti-outsider sentiments” that led to the formation of Meghalaya’s first militant group, the Hynniewtrep Achik Liberation Council (HALP), in 1992.
  • Hynniewtrep represented the Khasi and Jaintia communities and Achik represented the Garo community.
  • HALC was later divided and HNLC came into being that represented the Khasi and Jaintia communities and the Achik Matgrik Liberation Army that represented the Garo community.
  • The Achik Matgrik Liberation Army was later replaced by the Achik National Volunteers Council (ANVC).
  • HNLC claimed to represent only the interest of Khasi Communities, whereas, the Achik Matgrik Liberation Army demanded a separate state for the Garo community.

Hampers India’s Act East policy.

  • Militancy has also stalled the prospect of linking the economy of the northeast with the neighbouring Southeast Asian countries
  • The education sector too has been affected by militancy. A number of schools in states like Tripura’s interior areas have been shut as teachers avoid the areas due to fear of militant strikes.

Inner Line Permit (ILP)

Restrictions are imposed on the entry of outsiders to maintain the original identity of indigenous people of Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh entry of outsiders are not allowed without ILP.

Way Forward

  • Government should enhance communication and connectivity, infrastructure improvement for better integration of the region with the mainland.
  • Stringent law and fast criminal justice system for quick disposal of insurgents attack cases should be imposed.


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