• Recently, the Kunming Declaration was adopted by over 100 countries at the ongoing 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in china.
  • The adoption of the declaration will create momentum for a new global biodiversity pact.
  • In a previous agreement, Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, signed in Aichi, Japan, in 2010, governments agreed on 20 targets to try to slow biodiversity loss and protect habitats by 2020.

Important points:

It calls for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity considerations in all sectors of the global economy but crucial issues – like funding conservation in poorer countries and committing to biodiversity-friendly supply chains have been left to discuss later.

  • It is not a binding international agreement.
  • It calls upon the parties to mainstream biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognise the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
  • The theme of the declaration is Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth.
  • By adopting this, the nations have committed themselves to support the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 implementation plan, a capacity building action plan for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety.
  • The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
  • As per the declaration the signatory nations will ensure that the post-pandemic recovery policies, programmes and plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, promoting sustainable and inclusive development.

Global Environment Fund (GEF)

  • GEF has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention came into force in 1994.
  • It is a private equity fund focused on seeking long term financial returns by investments in clean energy under climate change.
  • Additional Funds: In addition to providing guidance to the GEF and the GCF, parties have established two special funds:
  • The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).
  • Both funds are managed by the GEF.


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