NATIONAL SOCIALIST COUNCIL OF NAGALAND

  • Recently, the Union Government has entered into a Ceasefire Agreement with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (K) Niki Group for a period of one year.
  • This initiative is a significant boost to the Naga peace process and in line with Prime Minister of India’s vision of ‘insurgency free, prosperous North East’.

Important points:

  • After India became independent in 1947, the Naga territory initially remained a part of Assam.
  • In 1957, after an agreement was reached between Naga leaders and the Indian government, the Naga Hills region of Assam and the Tuensang frontier division to the northeast were brought together under a single unit directly administered by the Indian government.
  • Nagaland achieved statehood in 1963, however, rebel activity continued.
  • Recognises that the North East is very important for the country from the aspects of security.
  • Thus, the aim is to end all disputes in the Northeast by 2022 and usher in a new era of peace and development in the Northeast in 2023.
  • Under this, the Government is enriching the dignity, culture, language, literature and music of the Northeast.

Conflicts in Northeast India

  • Involving the concept of a distinct ‘homeland’ as a separate nation.
  • Naga insurgency originated from the demand of independence.
  • Although the demand for independence has majorly subsided, the lingering issue of a final political settlement including the demand for ‘greater Nagaland’ or ‘Nagalim’ remains.
  • Involving assertion of numerically smaller and less dominant tribal groups against the political and cultural hold of the dominant tribal group.
  • The State’s demographic profile has been altered since 1947 when mass migrations from the newly emerged East Pakistan converted it from a largely tribal area to one with a majority of Bengali speaking people.
  • Tribals were deprived of their agricultural lands at throw-away prices and driven to the forests.
  • The resultant tensions caused major violence and widespread terror.
  • Involving movements which ask for recognition of sub-regional aspirations and often come in direct conflict with the State Governments or even the autonomous Councils.
  • The State with its history of violent insurgency and its subsequent return to peace is an example to all other violence affected States.
  • Following an ‘Mizo Peace accord’ between the Union Government and the Mizo National Front in 1986 and conferment of statehood the next year, complete peace and harmony prevails in Mizoram.
  • Further, the boundary issue between Assam and Mizoram has existed since the formation of Mizoram.

Modes of Conflict Resolution:

  1. Strengthening security forces/ ‘police action’.
  2. More local autonomy through mechanisms such as conferment of Statehood, the Sixth Schedule Special Provisions under PART XXI of the Constitution.
  3. Negotiations with insurgent outfits.
  4. Development activities including special economic packages.

SOURCE: THE HINDU,THE ECONOMIC TIMES,MINT

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