The Swachh Bharat Mission – Gramin

The Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBM-G) is a nationwide campaign that aims to eliminate open defecation in rural areas. The Ministry of Jal Shakti launched the first phase of the mission in 2014. The second phase was launched on March 4, 2020 and will run from 2020-2021 to 2024-2025. 

Under the mission, all villages, Gram Panchayats, Districts, States and Union Territories in India declared themselves “open-defecation free” (ODF) by 2 October 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing over 100 million toilets in rural India.

The SBM-G’s objectives include: 

  • Eliminating open defecation in rural areas
  • Ensuring that everyone uses a toilet
  • Managing solid and liquid waste
  • Converting unhygienic facilities to pour flush toilets
  • Eliminating manual scavenging
  • Changing people’s attitudes toward good sanitation practices

The SBM-G is financed by the Government of India and state governments. The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation is the nodal ministry for the SBM-G

The Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) Phase II

It aims to sustain the Open Defecation Free (ODF) status and manage solid and liquid waste in rural India. The program’s guidelines aim for Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF Plus), which includes: 

  • ODF sustainability
  • Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM)

The SBM-G Phase II will work towards: 

  • Harnessing the potential of people and communities in rural India
  • Ensuring that no one is left behind and everyone uses a toilet
  • Transforming all villages from ODF to ODF Plus
  • Setting up plastic waste management units/material recovery centers
  • Constructing soak pits, waste stabilization ponds, and DEWATS for greywater management

The SBM-G Phase II will be implemented from 2020-2021 to 2024-2025 with an outlay of 1,40,881 crore rupees.

Toilet use declining since 2018-19- World Bank paper

There has been a clear trend of regular toilet use declining in rural India from 2018-19 onwards, with the largest drop being seen among Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe socio-economic groups.

The World Bank and a faculty of Economics at Yale University, reconciles varied data points on toilet access and usage from the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS), National Sample Surveys (NSS) and the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) and the SBM-G’s own information system. The NARSS was conducted across rural India from 2017-18 to 2019-20 by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation with World Bank support.

Decline amongst SCs, STs

While regular use of toilets declined for all groups, the decline is the largest for the SCs and the STs. 

  • There was a 20-percentage point decline in regular use of toilets for the SCs and a 24-percentage point decline for the STs 
  • Compared to a decline of 9 and 5 percentage points for the Other Backward Caste and General categories


A voluntary grassroot institution aimed at achieving common interest of society for the socio-economic upliftment of communities.

It is a model based on cooperation, collective gain and building social capital.


  1. Voluntary and open membership
  2. Economic participation of members
  3. Autonomy and independence
  4. Democratic control of units
  5. Provision for education and training for members
  6. Concern for community
  7. Cooperation among cooperatives


  1. Producers’ cooperative society
  2. Cooperative Farming Societies
  3. Marketing cooperative society
  4. Consumers’ cooperative society
  5. Cooperative credit societies
  6. Housing cooperative society


  1. Article 19(1)(c): All citizens shall have the right to form associations or unions or co-operative societies.
  2. DPSP Article 43B – Promotion of cooperative societies
  3. Part IX B of the Constitution – Grants constitutional status to cooperative societies


  1. It supports the weaker section of the community.
  2. It abolishes exploitation and generates employment.
  3. It makes access to financial services and assistances easier.
  4. It educates people the values of equality, mutuality, and cooperation.


  1. Influence of regional politicians in the workings of the cooperative societies
  2. Lack of uniform regulation in infrastructure and auditing
  3. Ensuring transparency and accountability

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