Recently, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched a communications satellite, CMS-01, on board its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV – C50) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Andhra Pradesh. Previously in November 2020, ISRO launched India’s Earth Observation Satellite, EOS-01, and nine other customer satellites.


  • CMS-01 is a communications satellite envisaged for providing services in extended C Band frequency spectrum.
  • The C band is a designation for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz).
  • Its coverage will include the Indian mainland, and the Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands.
  • The satellite is expected to have a life of more than seven years.
  • The satellite was injected precisely into its predefined sub- Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). Eventually, it will be placed into its specified slot in the Geo-Synchronous Orbit after a series of manoeuvres.
  • CMS-01 will replace and enhance the services of GSAT-12.
  • GSAT-12, a communication satellite built by ISRO, provides facilities for various communication services like Tele-education, Tele-medicine and for Village Resource Centres (VRC).
  • To provide the space based services directly to the rural areas, ISRO has launched the Village Resource Centres (VRCs) programme in association with NGOs/Trusts and state/central agencies.


  1. India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is the third generation launch vehicle.
  2. PSLV is the first launch vehicle which is equipped with liquid stages.
  3. PSLV’s first successful launch was in October 1994. PSLV was used for two of the most important missions. These are Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013.
  4. Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark II and GSLV MkIII are other two launch vehicles.
  5. GSLV Mk II is the largest launch vehicle developed by India, which is currently in operation. This fourth generation launch vehicle is a three stage vehicle with four liquid strap-ons. The indigenously developed cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS), which is flight proven, forms the third stage of GSLV Mk II.
  6. GSLV MkIII, chosen to launch Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft, is a three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO. The vehicle has two solid strap-ons, a core liquid booster and a cryogenic upper stage.
  7. GSLV Mk III is designed to carry a 4 ton class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which is about twice the capability of the GSLV Mk II.


  • A geo-synchronous orbit is a high Earth orbit that allows satellites to match Earth’s rotation. Located at 22,236 miles above Earth’s equator, this position is a valuable spot for monitoring weather, communications and surveillance.
  • To attain geosynchronous (and also geostationary) Earth orbits, a spacecraft is first launched into an elliptical orbit. This is called a Geo -synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
  • A GTO is highly elliptic. Its perigee (closest point to Earth) is typically as high as low Earth orbit (LEO), while its apogee (furthest point from Earth) is as high as geostationary (or equally, a geosynchronous) orbit.


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