Samudrayaan Project

  • Union Minister of Earth Sciences informed the Lok Sabha about Samudrayaan project.
  • Deep Ocean Mission has been launched in 2021 as a Central Sector Scheme of Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • Samudrayaan is a project under the Deep Ocean Mission.
  • The Samudrayaan mission is India’s first manned ocean mission, with the goal of sending men deep into the ocean in a submersible vehicle for deep-ocean exploration and rare mineral mining.
  • Under the Samudrayaan project of Deep Ocean Mission, MATSYA 6000 manned submersible design has been completed so far.
  • The 200-crore Samudrayaan Mission will send three people to a depth of 6000 metres in the sea in a manned submersible vehicle called MATSYA 6000 for deep underwater studies. Submarines have a maximum depth of roughly 200 metres.
  • Under the Mission, Deep water Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) namely Ocean Mineral Explorer (OMe 6000) has been deployed for exploration.

Main components of the Deep Sea Mission

  • A manned submersible will be developed to carry three people to a depth of 6,000 metres in the ocean.
  • This submersible will have a suite of scientific sensors and tools to help in deep ocean exploration.
  • Developed indigenously, MATSYA 6000, the manned submersible will have an endurance of 12 hours of operational period and 96 hours in case of an emergency.
  • It will help scientific personnel to observe and understand unexplored deep-sea areas by direct intervention.
  • An integrated mining system will be also developed for mining polymetallic nodules from 6,000 m depth in the central Indian Ocean.
  • Polymetallic nodules, also known as manganese nodules, are potato-shaped, largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor of world oceans in deep sea.
  • Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead etc., which are of economic and strategic importance.

Why are polymetallic nodules important for India?

  • India has been allotted a site of 75,000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International Sea Bed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules (PMN).
  • It is envisaged that 10 per cent of recovery of that large reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years.
  • It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean.
  • India’s Exclusive Economic Zone spreads over 2.2 million square kilometres.

Relevance of the Project for India:

  • India has a 7,517 km long coastline, which is home to nine coastal states and 1,382 islands.
  • Its three sides are surrounded by the oceans and around 30 cent of the nation’s  population live in coastal areas and coastal regions play a major factor in the country’s economy.
  • The mission will also boost the Central government’s vision of ‘New India’ that highlights the Blue Economy as one of the ten key aspects of growth.

Entities involved in Samudrayaan

  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO),
  • IITM,
  • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)


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