• Recently, India has enhanced its climate change targets for 2030.
  • In UNFCCC COP 26 at Glasgow in 2021, the Prime Minister of India had made a series of new promises to strengthen climate actionfrom India.
  • India is now committing itself to at least 45% reduction in emissions intensity of GDP (emissions per unit of GDP) from 2005 levels.
  • The existing target was a 33% – 35% reduction.
  • India is also promising to ensure that at least 50% of installed electricity generation capacity in 2030 would be based on non-fossil fuel-based sources.
  • This is an increase from the existing 40% target.


  • The updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) seek to enhance India’s contributions towards the achievement of the strengthening of global response to the threat of climate change as agreed under the Paris Agreement.
  • NDCs embody efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
  • Such action will also help India usher in low emissions growth pathways.
  • New NDCs will demonstrate India’s commitment at the highest level for decoupling of economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions.
  • As a result of the revised NDCs, the Net Zero target by 2030 by Indian Railways alone will lead to a reduction of emissions by 60 million tonnes annually.
  • Increase non-fossil energy capacity to 500 GW (gigawatts) by 2030.
  • Reduce the total projected carbon emissions by 1 billion tonnes (BT) by 2030.
  • Achieve net zero carbon by 2070.

India’s Initiatives towards Climate Change

  • India is accelerating its e-mobility transition with the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles Scheme.
  • A voluntary vehicle scrapping policyto phase out old and unfit vehicles complements the existing schemes.
  • India is among a handful of countries that support the global EV30@30 campaign, which aims for at least 30% new vehicle sales to be electric by 2030.
  • India’s advocacy of five elements for climate change “Panchamrit”, at the UNFCCC COP26 in Glasgow is a commitment to the same.

Highlights of UNFCCC COP 26

  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of Parties 26 was held in Glasgow, UK in 2021.
  • The Glasgow Summit has urged countries to consider strengthening their 2030 targets by COP27 to be held in Egypt in 2022.
  • The summit targeted global warming not to exceed +1.5°C and got about 140 countries to announce target dates for bringing emissions down to net zero.
  • The achievement is significant as in the Paris Agreement, the developing countries did not agree to reduce emissions but just the “emissions-intensity” of GDP.
  • India has also joined the consensus and announced its net-zero target of 2070.
  • A potentially important development which emerged out of COP26 (but outside the COP process) is the Glasgow Breakthrough Agenda endorsed by 42 countries (including India).
  • This is a cooperative effort to accelerate the development and deployment of clean technologies and sustainable solutions in areas such as clean power, road transport, steel and hydrogen.
  • Coal is the dirtiest of fossil fuels and an early phasing out of coal is clearly desirable.
  • European countries have pushed hard for its phase out; however, developing countries have resisted this.
  • A middle path, as suggested by India, was referred to at the COP26 calling for a “phase-down” of coal-based power.


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