Urbanisation

Urbanisation refers to shifting of population from rural areas to urban areas.

  • Urbanisation Primarily driven by Pull factor.
  • Urbanisation gained pace Particularly after LPG

Pull Factors

  1. Economic Opportunities
  2. Education
  3. Health
  4. Entertainment
  5. Skill Development
  6. Job Availability

Unsustainability in Urbanisation often lead to various problems in the Society.

  • To tackle this Problem 1st Urban Commission was formed in              Charles Corea.
  • Currently 56% Population of World lives in Cities.

Issues in Urbanisation

  1. Crisis on Housing
    • It will lead to pressure on housing, so people started to living on Slump areas.
  1. Unemployment
    • Crowding to limited employment opportunities end up with Unemployment in
      Urban areas.
  1. Environmental concern
    • It increased pollution and led to over exploitation of natural resources.
  1. Health Problems
    • Over Crowding Prone to Pandemic and other communicable disease.
  1. Threat to Social Order
    • Unemployment will lead to Theft, Bulgari and Creates Chaos in Society.

Government Schemes on Urbanisation

  1. Smart Cities Mission
    • Launched in 2015
    • To provide required infrastructure, Viable environment, case of doing life.

2. AMRUT (Atal mission for rejunavation and Urban Transformation)

    • Ensure assured tap water supply and drainage connection.
    • Creating more open Spaces Ex: Parks.

3. Swatch Bharat Mission

    • Bring behavioural changes to people on waste management and cleanliness.

4. HRIDAY (Heritage city development and Augmented Yojana)

    • Launched in 2015
    • Bring Urban planning, Economic growth Sustainable towards Heritage conservation

5. PM Awas Yojana

    • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs’ (MoHUA) Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) is part of the government’s effort to provide housing for all by 2022.
    • By offering a subsidy on the interest rate of a home loan during repayment through Equated Monthly Installments (EMIs), it makes home loans accessible to the urban poor.

Prelims Facts

Camptothecin-

Cancer drug

  • Camptothecin is taken from the critically endangered Nothapodytes nimmoniana plant species in India.
  • Additionally, it is taken from a species of tree found in China called Camptotheca acuminate.
  • Almost 1,000 tons of plant material must be processed in order to make 1 ton of camptothecin.
  • The anti-cancer properties of this compound are highly sought after, and it is utilised in the production of medications such as itinotecan and topotecan.
  • Scientists at IIT Madras have recently devised a cost-effective microbial fermentation process to produce this compound.

Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (ECGC)

Establishment:

  • The Ministry of Commerce and Industry is the sole owner of ECGC Ltd.
  • The Export Risks Insurance Corporation was first established by the Indian government in 1957.
  • In 1964, after insurance covers were introduced to banks during 1962–1964, the name was changed to Export Credit & Guarantee Corporation Ltd.
  • August 2014 saw a change to ECGC Ltd.

Objectives:

  • The Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) was founded to support exports by offering exporters credit insurance services against the risk of nonpayment by foreign buyers for political and commercial reasons.

Zosurabalpine

  • Recently, scientists discovered a novel class of antibiotics called zosurabalpin that may be able to combat the drug-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii.
  • It prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules from being transported.
  • In mice models of pneumonia and sepsis caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, zosurabalpin was found to be effective.

Prerna Scheme

  • In order to inspire India’s youth to be change agents, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s first school in Vadnagar, Gujarat, is being converted into an inspirational model school called “Prerna.”
  • With its first class expected to graduate next year, the school uses a variety of methods and tools to teach values.
  • As part of the program, 30 students from 15 districts will be present at any given time at the school for a week, with two students chosen from each of the 750 districts in the nation.
  • Application: Value-based education can be demonstrated at the school.

Place in NEWS

South China Sea:

Bordering Nations of South China Sea

  • Brune
  • China
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Philippines
  • Taiwan
  • Vietnam

 

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