Context: Moroccan earthquakes
Shaking of earth caused by release of energy travelling in all directions. The vibration is called seismic waves and are recorded on an instrument called seismograph.
- Hypocenter: Location below earth’s surface where earthquake starts
- Epicenter: Location directly above it on the surface of the earth
- Ritcher scale: Magnitude scale – energy released during a quake – Range: 0-10
- Mercalli scale: Intensity scale – measures the visible damage caused – range: 1-12
– most common type
– Tectonic plates are constantly shifting as they drift around on mantle below causing stress to build up.
– Large amount of stress causes formation of faultline along convergent, divergent and transform boundaries causing earthquakes.
– Along Fault zones : Rocks along a fault tend to move in opposite directions; When the tendency to move apart overcomes friction, they slide past one another abruptly causing earthquake.
– less prevalent compared to tectonic type
– occurs before or after the eruption of a volcano
3. Man made
– Collapse earthquake: in areas of intense mining activity
– Explosion earthquake: caused by explosion of chemical or nuclear devices
– Induced earthquake: in areas of large reservoirs
Three large zones of the earthquakes
- Circum-Pacific seismic belt (Ring of Fire):
along the rim of the Pacific Ocean – about 81 per
cent of earthquakes occur here
- Alpide earthquake belt: Java to Sumatra
through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and
out into the Atlantic – about 17 percent of the
world’s largest earthquakes.
- Submerged mid-Atlantic Ridge: The ridge marks where two tectonic plates are spreading apart (a divergent plate boundary).
The increase in earthquake risk is due to a spurt in developmental activities driven by
urbanization, economic development and the globalization of India’s economy. The increase in
use of high-technology equipment and tools in manufacturing and service industries has also
made them susceptible to disruption due to relatively moderate ground shaking.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) was the
first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda and provides Member States with
concrete actions to protect development gains from the risk of disaster.
Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk
Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back
Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
Protection Of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO Act)
Why this topic?
Minister’s letter comes against the backdrop of a WCD official’s arrest recently
for abusing minor.
Context:The letter comes in the backdrop of the multiple complaints of sexual harassment filed against Premoday Khakha, a suspended Deputy Director in the WCD Department who was arrested for allegedly raping a girl.
- The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
- Ministry of Women and Child Development
- An Act to protect children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment
and pornography and provide for establishment of Special Courts for trial
of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
- Child sexual abuse was prosecuted under the following sections of the Indian Penal Code:
- I.P.C. (1860) 375- Rape
- I.P.C. (1860) 354- Outraging the modesty of a woman
- I.P.C. (1860) 377- Unnatural offences
12 key principles
- Right to life and survival
- Best interests of the child
- Right to be treated with dignity and compassion
- Right to be protected from discrimination
- Right to special preventive measures
- Right to be informed
- Right to be heard and to express views and concerns
- Right to effective assistance
- Right to Privacy
- Right to be protected from hardship during the justice process
- Right to safety
- Right to compensation
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