• The air near the surface cools at night as a result of the land surface cooling.
  • Fog forms when water vapour in the air condenses because cooler air cannot hold as much moisture as warmer air.
  • Early in the morning, when the temperature is at its lowest, fog starts to form.

Favourable Conditions:

  • Two of the most important conditions for the formation of fog are moisture content and a drop in temperature.
  • There can be “high spatial variability” in fog, and temperature, wind, and humidity can all affect how thick the fog is.
  • Because of the increased humidity, areas close to bodies of water, for example, may experience denser fog.
  • The months of December and January see significant, weeks-long periods of heavy fog, with the Indo Gangetic Plain being most susceptible to these occurrences.

Types of fog

Advection fog

  • The area covered and duration of advection fog are larger.
  • It originates from the condensation of water vapour on a cool surface by warm, humid air.
  • It happens at the interface of cool ocean water and warm tropical air.
  • When the wind blows in the proper direction, sea fog spreads across coastal regions.

Valley fog

  • is the result of mountains blocking the escape of dense air.
  • For several days, fog is trapped at the valley’s bottom.

Freezing fog

  • is result of liquid droplets freezing on solid surfaces.
  • On cloud-covered mountaintops, it happens.
  • The Indo Gangetic Plain does not contain them.

Conditions Favouring Fog over North-western India

Decreasing Temperature:

  • In northwest India, the temperature has started to drop.
  • Six degrees Celsius is the lowest minimum temperature Delhi has seen this season.
  • Recent reports of extremely low minimum temperatures over Punjab, Haryana, and portions of Rajasthan indicate the presence of cold wave conditions.

Dense Fog:

  • There is a lot of fog over the Indo Gangetic Plain as a result of the temperature dropping, moisture, and light winds.

Effect of Western disturbances:

  • Winds carrying moisture are brought to northwest India by western disturbances, which are storms that originate in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • This may cause the region’s moisture content to rise.
  • Local moisture sources such as soil moisture and river water vapour can also produce fog in the absence of western disturbances.

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