India & China Relations

India and China share a long and complex history. Their over 4,000 km shared border has been a source of much conflict, including the humiliating Sino-Indian War of 1962 along the LAC.

Despite the tensions, India and China have also sought to cooperate on a number of issues. In the 1990s, the two countries signed a number of agreements on Trade and Investment. In recent years, they have also cooperated on issues such as Climate change and Counterterrorism.


  • However, there are a number of challenges that remain in India-China relations.
  • The boundary dispute remains unresolved, and there is growing distrust between the two countries.
  • India is also concerned about China’s growing military and economic power.


  • India and China are important partners for each other.
  • They are both major powers with growing economies and militaries.
  • They also have a number of shared interests, such as regional stability and economic development.

The future of India-China relations will depend on how the two countries manage their differences and build on their common ground. It is important for both sides to avoid conflict and focus on cooperation.

Political Relations

  • India and China established diplomatic relations in 1950.
  • The relationship has been complex, with periods of both cooperation and conflict.
  • In recent years, the two countries have sought to build a “Closer Developmental Partnership.”
  • There are a number of high-level dialogue mechanisms between the two countries, including the Special Representatives on the Boundary Question and the Strategic Dialogue.
  • India and China also cooperate on a number of regional and global issues.

Issues in India-China Relations

  • The boundary dispute between the two countries is a major issue.
  • India is concerned about China’s growing military and economic power.
  • China is concerned about India’s growing ties with the United States.
  • Both countries are also competing for influence in the region and beyond.

Historical Relations

India and China have a long history of positive relations, dating back to ancient times. The two countries have been engaged in trade and cultural exchanges for centuries.

  • Trade: India and China have been trading partners for centuries. The Silk Road, which was established in the 2nd century BC, was a major trade route that connected India and China. Indian goods such as textiles, spices, and precious stones were traded for Chinese goods such as silk, porcelain, and tea.
  • Cultural exchanges: Buddhism was transmitted from India to China in the 1st century AD. Buddhism had a profound impact on Chinese culture, and it remains a major religion in China today. Indian art, architecture, and philosophy also influenced Chinese culture.
  • Diplomatic relations: India and China established diplomatic relations in 1950. The two countries have worked together on a number of regional and global issues, such as the Non-Aligned Movement and the BRICS bloc.


  • In 645 AD, the Chinese monk Xuanzang traveled to India to study Buddhism. He spent 17 years in India, and he wrote a detailed account of his travels. His account is an important source of information about India during the Gupta period.
  • In the 11th century AD, the Indian mathematician and astronomer Bhaskara II visited China. He taught the Chinese about Indian mathematics and astronomy.
  • In the 14th century AD, the Indian traveler Ibn Battuta visited China. He wrote a detailed account of his travels, which provides valuable information about China during the Yuan dynasty.
  • In the 18th century AD, the Chinese emperor Qianlong sent a number of diplomatic missions to India. These missions helped to strengthen relations between the two countries.
  • In the 20th century AD, India and China worked together to achieve independence from colonial rule. The two countries also supported each other during the Cold War.

India and China have a long history of positive relations. The two countries have been engaged in trade and cultural exchanges for centuries. They have also worked together on a number of regional and global issues.

LAC- Line of Actual Control


The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a notional demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the Sino-Indian border dispute. The concept was introduced by Chinese premier Zhou Enlai in a 1959 letter to Jawaharlal Nehru as the “line up to which each side exercises actual control”, but rejected by Nehru as being incoherent.
  • The LAC is not a formal boundary, and its exact location is disputed.
  • Both India and China have claimed large areas on the other side of the LAC.
  • The two countries have fought a war over the border in 1962, and there have been numerous skirmishes and standoffs since then.
  • The LAC is divided into three sectors: the western sector, the central sector, and the eastern sector.
    • The western sector is the most disputed, and it is where most of the tensions and skirmishes have taken place in recent years.



  • The LAC is a strategic line of defence for both countries.
  • The LAC separates the two countries’ nuclear arsenals.
  • The LAC is located in a region that is rich in natural resources, such as water and minerals.
  • The LAC is located in a region that is of growing strategic importance, due to its proximity to the Indian Ocean and the Malacca Strait.

Challenges and Prospects

  • The LAC remains a major challenge in India-China relations.
  • The two countries have different perceptions of the LAC, and they have been unable to reach an agreement on its demarcation.
  • This has led to tensions and skirmishes along the LAC.

Positive developments

  • India and China have maintained regular dialogue on the border issue, and they have established a number of confidence-building measures.
  • The two countries have a strong economic relationship, and they are cooperating on a number of regional and global issues.
  • The future of the LAC will depend on the ability of India and China to manage their differences peacefully.
  • Both countries are vested in maintaining peace and stability along the LAC.

Other NEWS: (Source: The Hindu & PIB)

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Dilli Ke Farishtey’ Scheme


·       The Delhi government launched the scheme on February 15, 2018, to reward people who offer immediate assistance to road accident victims within the ‘golden hour’ and provide cashless treatment at the nearest private hospital.

·       Around 23,000 such victims have been provided treatment under the scheme since its launch.

PM-eBUS Sewa Scheme ·       The scheme will promote e-mobility and provide full support for behind-the-meter power infrastructure.

·       10,000 e-buses on PPP model in cities of Three lakh and above population as per census 2011

·       Cities will also be supported for development of charging infrastructure under Green Urban Mobility Initiatives.

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