Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

There is still a military and political war between Israel and the Palestinians. Commencing in the middle of the 20th century, it is one of the longest-running hostilities in history. Alongside various attempts to end the larger Arab-Israeli conflict, a number of attempts have been made to resolve the issue as part of the peace process.

The conflict is rooted in the competing aspirations of two peoples for the same territory. Palestinians seek a state of their own in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, which were captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. Israel, on the other hand, claims all of the disputed territory as its own, arguing that it is the Jewish homeland.

Historical background of Israel

It was officially declared an Independent State in 1948 by Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion. This event sparked the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, which resulted in the expulsion of Palestinians and waves of Jewish emigration from other parts of the Middle East.

  • Israel is the world’s first Jewish state in two millennia.
  • It represents the restoration of the Jewish homeland after the centuries-long Diaspora that followed the demise of the Herodian kingdom in the 1st century CE.
  • Today, approximately 43 percent of the global Jewish population resides in Israel.
    • Israel’s population is about 74 percent Jewish.
    • Most of the rest of the population is Muslim.
    • About two-thirds of the population were born in Israel.
    • All other Israelis come from over 100 different countries.

After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, Palestine typically referred to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The League of Nations placed Palestine under UK administration in 1922.

  • 1947–1977: The UN General Assembly proposed a plan to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab one.
  • 1987: The First Intifada began in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.
  • 1949: An armistice agreement established new de facto borders.

Israel has fought seven wars since its establishment

Wars Years
War of Independence 1948-49
Suez Crisis 1956
Six-Day War 1967
Yom Kippur War 1973
Arab–Israeli War 1948
Lebanon War 1982
Operation Cast Lead 2008-2009
Palestinian War 2000-2005
War of Attrition 1967-1970

Other wars involving Israel include

  • 2012 Israeli operation in the Gaza Strip
  • 2014 Gaza War

The Present conflict has been fuelled by

  • The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which Palestinians view as a violation of their human rights.
  • The construction of Israeli settlements in the West Bank, which Palestinians see as an attempt to confiscate their land and undermine their chances of establishing a viable state.
  • The Palestinian right of return, which is the right of Palestinians who were displaced or expelled from their homes in Israel in 1948 to return to their homeland.
  • The status of Jerusalem, which is a holy city for both Jews and Muslims.

The conflict has been marked by violence on both sides, including suicide bombings, rocket attacks, and military incursions. Tens of thousands of people have been killed and millions more have been displaced.

  • In recent years, there has been little progress towards resolving the conflict.
  • Both sides have hardened their positions, and there is little trust between them.
  • The international community continues to call for a two-state solution, which would involve the establishment of an independent Palestinian state alongside Israel.
  • There is no easy solution, and the path to peace is likely to be long and difficult.

Reason for Recent War

  • The 2023 Hamas launched a surprise cross-border attack from Gaza on October 7.
  • Hamas killed more than 1,400 people and took hundreds of hostages.
  • Israel responded by unleashing its full military force on Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. Over 7,000 people have been killed and the death toll is rising almost every hour.
  • The conflict between Israel and Hamas has its roots in the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza in 2005.
    • After the withdrawal, Hamas won the 2006 Palestinian legislative election.
    • A civil war between Hamas and Fatah in 2007 resulted in Hamas gaining control over Gaza.
  • The late 19th and early 20th centuries are when the war first began.
    • Nationalist groups were founded by Jews and Arabs in the Middle East to secure sovereignty for their respective populations.
  2. Previous article on Israel 
  3. MEA Press release

Other NEWS (Source: The Hindu & Indian Express)

ED ropes in ISRO, IIT Kanpur to probe illegal sand mining
  • The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) has roped in experts from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT-K)
  • To assist in its ongoing investigation into allegations of excessive sand mining in Tamil Nadu
Developed Countries to overshoot Carbon Emissions Goal, says study
  • At COP-28, countries are expected to give an account of their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), which are their commitments to the UN on emission cuts.
  • Developed countries
  • Responsible for three-fourths of existing carbon emissions
  • Will end up emitting 38% more carbon in 2030 than they have committed to, going by current trajectories.
Same-Sex Marriages
  • All five judges on the Bench agreed that there is no fundamental right to marry under the Constitution.
  • All five judges also unanimously agreed that it is not possible to tweak the Special Marriage Act, 1954 by using gender neutral language to allow same-sex marriage.
  • One of the benefits that flows from marriage — the ability to adopt children — was specifically at issue before the court.
  • The judgment has refused to recognise queer marriages or civil unions. It does not open any doors — only a few windows that were already unlocked.

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