• Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur built five Jantar Mantars in  eighteenth century: New Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. These completed between 1724 and 1735.
  • It consists of about 20 primary stationary instruments.
  • These are massive brick replicas of well-known instruments, many of which have unique qualities of their own.
  • The instruments make it possible to observe astronomical positions with the naked eye. The observatory is an example of the Ptolemaic positional astronomy.

Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

  • The monument was finished in 1734.
  • It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has the largest stone sundial in the world.
  • The observatory’s primary aim was to build astronomical tables and anticipate the times and motions of the sun, moon, and planets.
  • In 1968, it was designated as a monument of national significance.

Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II (1693-1744):

  • He was an excellent astronomer and warrior. With the passing of his father, Maharaja Bishan Singh, he ascended to the throne at the age of two.
  • As a feudatory of the Mughals, Aurangazab gave Jai Singh the title of Sawai, which means to “one and a quarter,” a title that was retained by all of Jai Singh’s descendants.
  • He was taught by the top teachers and intellectuals in art, science, philosophy, and military affairs.
  • Jai Sing descended from the Kucchwaha Rajput clan.who assumed control in the twelfth century.
  • He constructed the Jantar Mantar, or Astronomy Observatories, in Mathura, Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi, and Ujjain.
  • It is he who gave Jaipur its name.


In News

  • The Padma awards are announced every year on the eve of Republic Day.

            The awards are presented by the President.

What are Padma Awards?

  • Following the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Awards are one of India’s highest civilian honours, and they are announced every year on the eve of Republic Day.
  • The Award recognises excellence in public service-related activities and disciplines.
  • There shouldn’t be more than 120 awards given out in a year (posthumous prizes and awards to NRIs, foreign nationals, and OCIs excluded).
  • The award cannot be used as a prefix or suffix to the awardee’s name, nor does it function as a title.
  • Awards: Three categories are available for the Padma Vibhushan, which is given for “exceptional and distinguished service,” the Padma Bhushan, which is bestowed for “distinguished service of a high order,” and the Padma shri for distinguished service of a high order.
  • These awards are open to all individuals, regardless of gender, colour, position, or occupation. Nevertheless, these Awards are not available to government employees, including those who work with PSUs, with the exception of physicians and scientists.
  • The prize is usually not given posthumously. Nonetheless, in very meritorious instances, the Government may contemplate bestowing an honour posthumously.
  • A person is only eligible toa receive a higher category Padma award if at least five years have passed since the last Padma award was given. Nonetheless, the Awards Committee may decide to relax the rules in exceptionally meritorious circumstances.
  • The Padma Awards Committee, which is annually appointed by the Prime Minister, receives all nominations. The Cabinet Secretary is in charge of the Committee, which also consists of the Secretary to the President, the Home Secretary, and four to six other distinguished individuals. The committee’s recommendations are forwarded to the Prime Minister and President of India for approval.
  • In 1954, the Indian government established the Bharat Ratna and Padma Vibhushan awards for civilians.
  • The Padma awards was divided into three classes: Tisra Varg, Dusra Varg, and Pahela Varg. In 1955, these were given new names: Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan, and Padma Shri.

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