Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests



Recently, India and China announced that both have agreed to establish a Hotline.




  • The decision to install a Hotline between the two countries was taken over a telephonic meeting between India’s External Affairs Minister and China’s Foreign Affairs Minister.
  • Hotline is a direct telephone line in constant operational readiness so as to facilitate immediate communication.
  • The Hotline will be helpful in timely communication and exchange of views between the two countries.

India’s Stand:

  • Reiterated the ‘three mutuals’ (mutual respect, mutual sensitivity and mutual interests) as the approach to the relationship.
  • Disengagement, followed by de-escalation, will lead to peace along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), and eventually normalisation of ties.

China’s Stand:

  • The boundary situation should not be placed at the front and centre of the relationship, but instead at a “proper place” in overall ties.
  • The indication was the two sides should return to business as usual while the issue is dealt with.

Recent Developments:

  • May 2020: Chinese and Indian forces clashed at Nathu La, Sikkim (India).After the Sikkim scuffles, tensions between the two countries rose in Ladakh, with a multi-place mobilization of troops.
  • June 2020: Indian and Chinese armies were engaged in the standoff in Pangong Tso, Galwan Valley, Demchok and Daulat Beg Oldie in eastern
  • Ladakh which became the heart of the recent LAC tensions.
  • June 2020: India banned 59 apps originating from China.
  • November 2020: India blocked 43 new mobile apps, mostly Chinese.
  • The ban has been enforced under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000.
  • February 2021: India and China decided to finally reach an agreement on disengagement at Pangong Lake.

Way Forward

It is imperative for the two sides to cherish the hard-won relaxation, and work together to consolidate the progress, keep up the consultation momentum, further ease the situation, and improve the border management and controlmechanisms.


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