• On the eve of Good Governance Day (25th December), the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched the ‘Star Rating Protocol of Garbage Free Cities- Toolkit 2022.
  • It is the most important governance tool of waste management – the Star Rating Protocol for Garbage Free Cities.
  • In the revised protocol the entire process of applying for certification has been simplified and made completely digital, paperless.
  • And new components pertaining to Information, Education & Communication (IEC) , capacity building, revenue from sale of waste by-products have been added to encourage cities to build an ecosystem to strengthen waste management systems.

Important points:

  • The Star Rating Protocol was launched by the MoHUA in 2018 to institutionalise a mechanism for cities to achieve Garbage Free status, and to motivate cities to achieve higher degrees of sustainable cleanliness.
  • In the recently concluded certification exercise for Garbage Free Cities nearly 50% of ULBs( Urban Local Bodies) (2,238 cities) participated in the certification exercise, of which a total of 299 cities have been certified.
  • 9 cities have been rated as 5-star, 143 cities rated as 3-star and 147 cities as 1-star.
  • In October 2021, Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 was launched, to create “Garbage Free Cities” (GFC), thereby placing India on a new trajectory of growth towards an ecosystem of holistic sanitation and waste management.
  • It is one of the various initiatives which intends to make Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) a successful project.

Garbage in India

  • India generates the highest amount of waste in the world (as of January 2020, 147,613 metric tonnes (MT) of solid waste is generated per day) — that’s more than even China. But the per person waste generated by both India and China at present is a small fraction of that by developed countries.
  • The per capita waste generation in Indian cities ranges from 200 grams to 600 grams per day. Only about 75-80% of the municipal waste gets collected and only 22-28 % of this waste is processed and treated.
  • It is estimated that by 2050, India’s waste generation will double whereas growth in China’s waste generation will be much slower.


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